Author: Dan Maruya

Darfur’s Challenge To International Society

Published: 2008    |    By: David R. Black & Paul D. Williams    |    Volume 65, No. 6 Download PDF Summary The human tragedy of Darfur has now lasted for nearly six years. As David Black and Paul Williams argue in their analysis of this shocking record,the story is one of ‘self-interest and risk aversion masked by ethical posturing’ on the part of all the key international players who might have provided leadership in response to this crisis. Why is it that major countries as well as international organizations failed to craft more robust responses in spite of their own often good intentions and the almost unprecedented pressure from organizations within civil society? In the context of a discussion of theories of international society the authors conclude that the widespread use of “responsibility to protect” language should not obfuscate the fact that international society remains wedded to the traditional principle of national sovereignty. Change may be coming, but not in time for the people of Darfur. About the Author David R. Black is Director of the Centre for Foreign Policy Studies and Professor of Political Science and IDS at Dalhousie University. Paul D. Williams is associate professor in the Elliott School of International Affairs at the George Washington University....

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From Conflict to Collaboration: Institution-Building in East Asia

Published: 2008    |    By: Shaun Narine    |    Volume 65, No. 5 Download PDF Summary There is so much written about China these days that we sometimes forget that there is a good deal more to East Asia than one massive country.Shaun Narine’s article takes us through the fascinating and important story of the building of regional institutions in East Asia, centering on the birth in 1967 of ASEAN–the Association of Southeast Asian Nations–and its development over the past four decades. About the Author Shaun Narine is Associate Professor of International Relations at St.Thomas University....

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Canada’s Aid Program: Still Struggling After Sixty Years

Published: 2008    |    By: Adam Chapnik    |    Volume 65, No. 3 Download PDF Summary Canada’s official development assistance program is now almost sixty years old, dating from our participation in the Colombo Plan in 1950. It has been the object of a great deal of well-meaning advice, and in recent years of scathing criticism. Adam Chapnick examines the reasons for our failure to develop an effective program, and proposes remedies. About the Author Adam Chapnick is Deputy Director, Education and Research at the Canadian Forces College. He would like to thank Danielle Goldfarb, Gerald Helleiner and Paul Samson for their comments on earlier drafts of this paper....

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The World Trading System: Doha and Beyond

Published: 2008    |    By: John M. Curtis    |    Volume 65, No. 2 Download PDF Summary International trade and the trading system are undergoing major changes. While the Doha Round of negotiations, focussed on agriculture, tariffs, and trade facilitation continues in Geneva well into its seventh year, and new regional or bilateral trade arrangements make headlines regularly, realities on the ground, particularly the proliferation of global value chains and the changed dynamics of economic power relationships, suggest that future international trade negotiations will have to include important issues that have not been on the Doha table About the Author John M. Curtis, formerly the Chief Economist, Department Foreign Affairs and International Trade, is currently a Distinguished Fellow at the Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI), and Visiting Adjunct Professor at McGill and Queen’s Universities....

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Climate Change and Canadian Energy Policy: Policy Contradiction; and Policy Failure & Canada and the Bali Roadmap

Published: Spring 2008    |    By: Mark S. Winfield & Matthew Bramley    |    Volume 65, No. 1 Download PDF Summary Climate Change and Canadian Energy Policy: Policy Contradiction and Policy Failure This article examines the relationship between energy policy and climate change policy in Canada. The article finds that Canadian climate change and energy policy have operated in parallel but contradictory directions. The resulting dichotomy helps to explain Canada’s failures to achieve significant reductions in GHG emissions to accord with its international commitments. The article also highlights the importance of the emergence of sub-national climate change policies in Canada and in the United States, particularly in the context of the lack of effective action at the federal level in both countries. Canada and the Bali Roadmap by the end of 2009, a new global agreement to combat climate change after 2012. But confidence in the environmental effectiveness of the agreement to be negotiated is undermined by the vagueness of the Roadmap text relating to the U.S. and developing countries. The Bali Roadmap does include a call for an aggregate reduction in industrialized countries’ emissions to 25-40% below the 1990 level by 2020, in line with climate science. But Canada’s domestic targets and policies fall woefully short of this standard and will need to be dramatically strengthened for Canada to play a responsible part in the Bali...

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Canada and the Arms Trade Treaty

Published: 2007    |    By: Ernie Regehr    |    Volume 64, No. 6 Download PDF Summary As a second-tier military exporter of some significance, and as an advocate of an arms trade treaty, Canada is in a position to promote controls based on agreed standards, transparency, and peer scrutiny and ensure that international well-being and respect for human rights will become the key test of responsible national export control policies and practice. About the Author Ernie Regehr, O.C., is Co-Founder of Project Ploughshares, a Fellow of CIGI, and Adjunct Associate Professor of Peace Studies at Conrad Grebel University College, University of Waterloo. He served as Canada’s representative on the Group of Governmental Experts on arms transfer transparency that led to the creation of the UN Register of Conventional Arms....

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High-Seas Fisheries: Troubled Waters,Tangled Governance, and Recovery Prospects

Published: 2007    |    By: Boris Worm & David VanderZwaag    |    Volume 64, No. 5 Download PDF Summary This article provides a short overview of the biological, institutional and legal dimensions of high-seas fisheries. It emphasizes that this is a unique time in history, where unprecedented awareness, scientific advances, and a growing willingness to collaborate internationally are setting the stage for a dynamic transformation of high-seas governance. What is missing is a visionary master plan on how to integrate fragmented efforts towards the common goal of sustainable development on the high seas. About the Author Professor Boris Worm is in the Biology Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax. Professor David VanderZwaag is Canada Research Chair in Ocean Law and Governance, Dalhousie Law School...

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Intervention and Conflict Management in a Changing World & The Responsibility to Engage: Canada and the Ongoing Crisis in Darfur

Published: 2007    |    By: Fen Osler Hampson & David Black    |    Volume 64, No. 4 Download PDF Summary Intervention and Conflict Management in a Changing World  The theme of the 2007 National Foreign Policy Conference was Conflict, Reconstruction and the Dilemma of Intervention. In his opening keynote remarks Professor Hampson reviewed the changing patterns of conflict between and within states, analysing the familiar sources of conflict- state failure, group rivalries, bitter competition for resources and wealth – as well as the rise of terrorism. Against this background Professor Hampson discussed the crucial and often successful role of international intervention, by global and regional organizations, by individual states large and small, and by non-governmental institutions, in helping states riven by conflict to bring it under control and to rebuild their societies. He concluded with five recommendations for Canadian policy and action. The Responsibility to Engage: Canada and the Ongoing Crisis in Darfur  This article assesses the response of the Canadian government to the ongoing crisis in Darfur against the leadership expectations generated by Canada’s role in instigating G8 action on Africa, and in championing the international “Responsibility to Protect.” It concludes that, while Canada has met the test of international respectability and burdensharing among its western peers, it has fallen short of the expectation of a leadership role to which its own previous statements and actions...

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Canada and the Americas: a Time for Modesty

Published: 2007    |    By: Jean Daudelin    |    Volume 64, No. 3 Download PDF Summary Political violence and repression have been displaced by levels of criminal violence that impinge on every aspect of life and that governments seem unable to contain. That tricky world is mostly foreign to Canada. Except in the Caribbean, which begs for an integrated policy, there is no reason for the Canadian government to play a prominent role in the Americas, for the simple reason that what it does there has little bearing on Canadians. The game is for Latin Americans to play and Canada should, modestly, let them take charge of it. About the Author Jean Daudelin is Assistant Professor, The Norman Paterson School of International Affairs....

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Arctic Sovereignty? What is at Stake?

Published: 2007    |    By: Donal McRae    |    Volume 64, No. 1 Download PDF Summary While as a matter of law all states are sovereign and independent, the degree of actual independence might vary whether one is looking at the matter from a political or economic perspective. So, too, one’s appreciation of the “threat” to Arctic sovereignty might vary according to the particular meaning one places on the term sovereignty. What, then, is really at stake in the sovereignty debate? What is it that Canada stands to lose as a matter of law if it does not stand up for its Arctic sovereignty? And what does standing up for Arctic sovereignty mean? To understand the issues it is necessary to go back and trace the history of the Arctic sovereignty debate and then see where things stand today. About the Author Donald McRae FRSC, is Hyman Soloway Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa....

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Global China The BMO Financial Group/CIIA Distinguished Lecture Series 2006

Published: 2006    |    By: Minxin Pei, Jeffrey Bader, Jaques Mistral, Ted C. Fishman  |    Volume 63, No. 5 Download PDF Summary The four articles in this issue of Behind the Headlines are based on the lectures in the BMO Financial Group/CIIA Distinguished Lecture Series 2006. The four lecturers discussed the remarkable growth of the Chinese economy, the much slower evolution of China’s political system, and the implications of these developments not only for the Chinese people but for the international community as a whole. About the Author Minxin Pei is Director of the China Program, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Jeffrey Bader is Director of the China Initiative at the Brookings Institution. Jacques Mistral is Professor of economics, Conseil d’analyse économique, Paris, and Senior Fellow, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Ted C. Fishman is the author of China Inc: How the Rise of the Next Superpower Challenges America and the World , published in 2005....

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Our Nuclear Future: Hanging Together or Hanging Separately?

Published: 2006    |    By: Paul Heinbecker    |    Volume 63, No. 4 Download PDF Summary The evident nuclear weapons ambitions of North Korea, the alleged aspirations of Iran and the still-to-be-ratified US-Indian agreement on nuclear cooperation raise major questions about the continuing viability of the ACD treaty regime. Meanwhile, rising oil prices and deepening climate change are renewing interest in nuclear energy on the part of some countries who had renounced the option and others who had never aspired to it, raising in the process all the old unanswered safety, security and environmental questions and some new ones as well. The entire regime is, thus, in jeopardy precisely when events suggest it needs innovation and reinforcement. It can be made to work but that will require greater recognition of common interest and shared fate in major world capitals, especially Washington, than has been evident so far. About the Author Paul Heinbecker is Distinguished Fellow, International Relations, at the Centre for International Governance Innovation, Waterloo, and Director of the Centre for Global Relations at Wilfrid Laurier University. He served as Canada’s Ambassador to the United Nations (2000-2003). This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of these institutions....

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Norms, Institutions and UN Reform: The Responsibility to Protect

Published:  2006   |    By: Jutta Brunnée  & Stephen J. Toope  |    Volume 63, No. 3 Download PDF Summary In this essay, we assess the reform potential of the responsibility to protect. We place that assessment in a context of failure to agree on institutional reform initiatives. We ask why states were able to articulate the responsibility to protect, but we also ask whether or not that articulation is likely to have any meaning when institutional reforms seem stuck. We argue that, ultimately, norm development is inextricably linked to the institutions that shape, interpret, and apply the norms. About the Author Jutta Brunnee is Professor of Law and Metcalf Chair in Environmental Law at the Faculty of Law, University of Toronto. Stephen J. Toope is Professor of Law and President of the University of British Columbia....

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Why treaties work or don’t work, and what to do about them

Published: 2006    |    By: DR. Trevor Findley    |    Volume 63, No. 1 Download PDF Summary The core treaties that I want to consider deal with so-called weapons of mass destruction (WMD): chemical, biological, nuclear, and radiological. I say “so-called” because lumping them together, when their physical and political effects are actually and potentially so different and so dependent on circumstance, obfuscates rather than enlightens. The term WMD has also become politicized in some quarters to mean weapons of mass destruction in the wrong hands. But, that said, it is a useful shorthand that I’m forced to use, along with everyone else. In addition to WMD treaties, I’ll consider other treaties that I am familiar with, by way of contrast, including those inside and outside the disarmament field. About the Author Trevor Findley is Director of the Canadian Centre for Treaty Compliance, and Associate Professor, Norman Paterson School of International Affairs at Carleton University. This article is based on his presentation to the National Capital Branch of the CIIA on January 25, 2006....

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Quagmire of convenience: The Chechen war and Putin’s presidency

Published: 2005    |    By: Robert E. Johnson    |    Volume 62, No. 4 Download PDF Summary “We share your pain,” declared Vladimir Putin to George Bush on 12 September 2001. Russians had indeed felt the terrible consequences of terrorism long before the 9/11 attacks. In September 1999, several hundred civilians died in a series of bombings in Moscow and several other cities. But pain and suffering were not all that the two presidents shared. For both, terrorist attacks raised fundamental questions about how their countries should be governed and what should guide their relations with the rest of the world. For both, the response was to wage war on an adversary that was not directly implicated in the terror. Both wars were accompanied by a vigorous assertion of executive power at home as well as by a go-it-alone approach on the international front. As Bush’s presidency has been defined by the war in Iraq, so too has Putin’s by the Chechen campaign, which can serve as a lens for examining how he has governed Russia and where he may lead it in the years to come. About the Author Robert E. Johnson is professor of History, University of Toronto, and former director of the Centre for Russian and East European Studies at the Munk Centre for International Studies....

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From Kananaskis to Gleneagles: Assessing Canadian “leadership” on Africa

Published: 2005   |    By: David R. Black    |    Volume 62, No. 3 Download PDF Summary Three years ago, in the context of the Kananaskis summit of the G8,Prime Minister Jean Chrétien orchestrated an agenda that for the first time focused the attention of the world’s richest countries on the monumental challenges facing the world’s poorest continent. In early July 2005, this time at the instigation of British Prime Minister Tony Blair, at Gleneagles the G8 will do it again. In between, our government has focused more attention and resources on Africa than ever before. It is appropriate, therefore, to assess Canadian claims to leadership on Africa against this record of activity and,more substantially, to assess the extent to which Canada has been able to contribute to the improvement of sub-Saharan Africa’s prospects. About the Author David R. Black is Chair, Department of International Development Studies, and Associate Professor of Political Science at Dalhousie University....

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Iraq and the Responsibility to Protect

Published: 2004   |    By: Ramesh Thakur    |    Volume 62, No. 1 Download PDF Summary The reformulation of national security into human security is simple, yet it has profound consequences for how we see the world, how we organize our political affairs, how we make choices in public and foreign policy, and how we relate to fellow human beings from many different countries and civilizations. It also raises fundamental questions about the responsibility that we have for the security and welfare of fellow human beings across political borders. In today’s seamless world, political frontiers have become less salient both for international organizations, whose rights and duties can extend beyond borders, and for states, whose responsibilities within borders can be held to international scrutiny. About the Author Ramesh Thakur is senior vice rector of the UN University and an assistant secretarygeneral of the United Nations. He was one of the principal authors of The Responsibility to Protect, the report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty....

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Canada in the 21st century: Beyond Dominion and Middle Power

Published:  2004   |    By: Jennifer M. Welsh    |    Volume 61, No. 4 Download PDF Summary As Canada manoeuvres its way out of its present crisis of international vocation, it will need to think less about whether it is a middle power and more about the kind of power it wields, where it can best wield it and for what purposes. About the Author Jennifer Welsh, a Canadian, teaches international relations at the University of Oxford and is a fellow of Somerville College. She is a former Jean Monnet Fellow of the European University Institute (Florence) and Cadieux Fellow in the Policy Planning Staff of Canada’s Department of Foreign Affairs. Welsh is the author of several books and articles on international relations, including Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations (Oxford University Press, 2004). The arguments in this article draw from her larger work, At Home in the World: Canada’s Global Vision for the 21st Century (HarperCollins Canada, 2004)....

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The politics of uncertainty in Japan

Published: 2004   |    By: Michael W. Donnelly    |    Volume 61, No. 3 Download PDF Summary The idea of a Japanese economic miracle lapsed from popular consciousness years ago. In its place the country’s prolonged struggle to escape the stubborn economic stagnation and political turmoil that followed the bursting of the speculative bubble in 1991 has become one of the legendary international stories of our times. As many readers will know, there has been all manner of speculation and theorizing in academic and policy-making circles about the nature of Japan’s economic and political ills, their impact and the needed cures. Evaluation of Japan’s future prospects rests on an understanding of this domestic economic struggle. An economically weak Japan at home will not be an influential Japan abroad. The most widely accepted assertion is that the nation’s inability to recover is related to tightly interwoven “structural” impediments that link macroeconomic conditions, the organization and management practices of a wide range of firms and financial institutions, and the manner in which the government intervenes in the economy. About the Author Professor Michael W. Donnelly is director of the Asian Institute at the University of Toronto and holder of the Dr. David Chu Professorship in Asia Pacific Studies. He gratefully acknowledges the suggestions and research help of Lynne Kutsukake and Hidemi Shiga....

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The Israeli/Palestinian Conundrum: Is there a way out?

Published: 2004   |    By: Michael Bell    |    Volume 61, No. 1 Download PDF Summary The present crisis in relations between Israelis and Palestinians is one of the most profound in the history of their shared dispute, originating in the 19th century. Today that confrontation is manifest in a particularly virulent and intractable form; but despite those very harsh realities, it is the moral responsibility of leaders on both sides, battered and bruised as they are, to find a way out. About the Author Michael Bell, “Formerly Canadian Ambassador to Israel, Jordan and Egypt, and currently Senior Fellow on Diplomacy in the Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto”...

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Hong Kong, 1 July 2003— Half a million protestors: The Security Law, Identity Politics, Democracy, and China

Published: 2004    |    By: Sonny Lo    |    Volume 60, No. 4 Download PDF Summary “This article delineates the background to the debate” surrounding article 23 of Hong Kong’s’ Basic Law as well as “its development after the protests, its underlying implications concerning identity and patriotism, and the debate’s consequences for the democratic development of both Hong Kong and China.” Furthermore it “suggests that the Canadian government may have to devise new ways of coping with Hong Kong’s political development, especially because the post-colonial enclave has a large population of Canadians” About the Author Dr. Sonny Lo (PhD, University of Toronto), is Associate Professor, Department of Politics and Public Administration, University of Hong Kong...

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A Vital Industry in Search of New Policies: Air Transport in Canada

Published: Spring 2003    |    By: Fred Lazar    |    Volume 60, No. 3 Download PDF Summary Few businesses are as important as the airline industry for the smooth and efficient working of a modern society. Air transport has come to play an irreplaceable role in service to commerce and to the travel needs of the millions of people who fly every day. It is a global, technologically advanced and dynamic growth industry. In March, 2003 the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) reported that the output of air transport had increased by a factor of 31 since 1960, while world GDP increased by a factor of 4. It is also an important industry in terms of the numbers it employs, directly and indirectly. These observations are as true in Canada as anywhere in the world. To take but one Canadian indication of the direct value of the industry, the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA) reported that the operations of Pearson International Airport in Toronto generated $14 billion in business revenues and 138,000 jobs in the Greater Toronto Region in the year 2000. 1 Air transport services (air carriers, air cargo, and general aviation) accounted for at least 85% of the total impact. This industry is too important to the Canadian economy to be left to operate under outdated rules and subject to avoidable costs that impair its...

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Canada’s Security Policies

Published: Winter 2002-2003    |    By: George Lindsey et al.    |    Volume 60, No. 2 Download PDF Summary The new federal government under Paul Martin has stated its intention to reverse the decline, evident over the last few decades, in Canada’s position in the world. Achieving this goal will involve review and revision of our present programs in the areas of foreign policy, security policy, and international aid policy, which are to a considerable degree interdependent. This paper relates mainly to security and defence policies and programs. Canada’s basic defence objectives remain very much the same as they have been since the end of the Second World War. Our situation in North America, our vast extent and our wealth of resources, to say nothing of our proud military history, require us to maintain armed forces. We must ensure the protection of our sovereign territory. We wish to co-operate with like-minded countries in defending against possible external aggression, and in preventing or containing threats to peace and security elsewhere in the world. Like most other developed countries, Canada is currently seeking to reorient its international relations in the aftermath of the Cold War and following the emergence of new and very different threats to peace and stability. Some of these threats relate not only to the world outside, but also to our own territory. About the Author...

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Like Moths to a Flame: The News Media, The United Nations, and the Specialized Agencies

Published: Winter 2001-2002    |    By: Andrew Caddell    |    Volume 59, No. 2 Download PDF Summary The way the world receives the news began to change in 1980 with the transmission of the first signals of a little-known broadcaster based in Atlanta, Georgia. At 6:00 pm EDT on 1 June 1980, the words from a producer, ‘Take 11, mike cue, cue New York,’ were followed by those of the announcers: ‘Good evening, I’m David Walker … and I’m Lois Hart.” The Cable News Network — or ` The News Channel,’ as it was originally called – was on the air. In that instant, 24-hour-a-day satellite television news was born. It would eventually alter the face of journalism and gradually change diplomacy in the industrialized world. Over the next few years, CNN took on an influence far greater than any conventional television network. Described as the ‘sixteenth member of the Security Council’ by former UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, it and the other global news media began to act as the barometers or filters of what was valid, valuable, or appealing for the powerful people who tuned in to watch. About the Author...

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Canada’s Dysfunctional Refugee Policy: A Realist Case for Reform

Published: Summer 2001    |    By: Stephen Gallagher    |    Volume 58, No. 4 Download PDF Summary In the aftermath of the events of 11 September 2001, the cases of Ahmed Ressam and Nabil Al-Marabh have fuelled suspicion that Canada’s lax refugee laws have compromised Canadian and American security. While there is mounting evidence to support this claim, the wider question receives much less attention. Is Canada’s incountry or ‘landed’ refugee system in the national interest?’ In my opinion, it is not. It is my contention that the existing in-country refugee system is not in the national interest because, first, it isn’t a refugee system. It is, for the most part, a humanitarian immigration system. Second, it is racked by dysfunction, waste, and corruption. These are not aberrations but predictable outcomes of Canada’s existing reception and recognition policies. About the Author Stephen Gallagher teaches Political Science at Concordia University. He has taught at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, and at McGill University, Montreal. He is at present Chair of the Montreal Branch of the CIIA....

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After the Catastrophe: Canada’s Position in North America

Published: Spring 2001    |    By: Stephen Clarkson    |    Volume 58, No. 3 Download PDF Summary Let us begin with Harold Innis’s famous warning from the 1930s that any statement by an economist analyzing a problem with perfect clarity is certain to be wrong. This admonition may be reassuring if, in the aftermath of the terrorist coup against the United States, we find clarity elusive. As we try to understand our own emotional responses and to make sense of the policy developments that have radiated from that disaster, concerned citizens in Canada can surely be excused for being fundamentally confused. Confusion is rife when diametrically opposed statements can be made about the most basic aspects of the post-catastrophe situation. In the paragraphs that follow I will try to shed some light on the divergent assertions that characterize the debate about North America, Canada, and its place in the world after 11 September. Without expecting to generate perfect clarity, I hope to set down some markers to illuminate both the extremes and the centre of the discussion in which we are engaged so that we may better grasp the significance of events as they continue to unfold. I will address four areas of concern to Canadians. Starting with the putative shifts that have occurred in the global balance of power, I will move on to the resulting...

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Canada in the Organization of American States: The First Five Years

Published: Autumn 1994    |    By: David Mackenzie    |    Volume 52, No. 1 Download PDF Summary Canada’s relations with the other nations of the western hemisphere were given a significant boost at the beginning of 1990 when, after decades of discussion and debate in which both strong support for and serious reservations about membership were expressed, Canada joined the Organization of American States (oAs). If nothing else, this leap of faith reflected an increasing interest in Latin America and the Caribbean and largely symbolized Canada’s full entrance into the inter-American system. Now, after five years of active membership, it is possible to look back and assess Canada’s performance in the OAS, and to consider whether or not the original hopes have been realized or the concerns borne out. About the Author David Mackenzie teaches history at Wilfrid Laurier University in Waterloo and is author of Inside the Atlantic Triangle (1986), Canada and International Civil Aviation (1989), and Arthur Irwin: A Biography (1993)....

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